Running has many benefits but it is a traumatic sport, where we make many hits in a training session. If we do not plan our training well or our muscles or joints are not prepared to run, in the short or long term the typical injuries of the runner may appear.
They are often more frequent in the novice runner, especially due to over training or lack of technique or preparation. But the experienced rider is not exempt from suffering the most frequent injuries to the rider. Let’s analyze each lesion …
- Description : Periostitis is inflammation of the periosteum or tissue lining the bone. The tibialis anterior muscle is activated each time we make a stride, this involves pulling on the bone of the tibia. If we are not well trained, these repeated tractions eventually irritate and inflame the area where the anterior tibial is inserted with the tibia, producing the typical pain in the tibial crest.
- Prevention : This injury is usually caused by excess mileage. Therefore, the best way to prevent it is by gradually starting to run and not increase sharply weekly mileage or long runs. For this, you can follow the unwritten rule of 10% (do not exceed in 10% the mileage of the previous week). If we already suffer tibial periostitis, we must leave one or two weeks of rest until the pain disappears to retrain.
- Description : is the inflammation of the fascia of the sole of the foot. This fascia supports the arch of the foot and absorbs impacts. When these impacts occur repeatedly and excessively, as in running, it may become inflamed or altered that supports the foot, causing pain.
- Prevention : As with almost all injuries to the runner, the best way to prevent is to plan the training well and not for miles. But here also affects the surface where we run, if it is very hard there is more risk of injury. Overweight runners are more likely to have this injury, as are runners who overreach. If we heel a lot while running, the fascia is also overloaded, so a good technique and a strong musculature in the foot area can prevent plantar fasciitis.
Syndrome of the iliotibial band or band
- Description : This is the pain that appears in the lateral area of the knee because of the repeated friction of the iliotibial band with the epicondyle of the femur. Bear in mind that walking is not the same as running and when doing knee flexion-extension, the iliotibial band begins to rub in areas where it does not usually do and can become irritated. This injury is frequent especially in novice runners, although it can also appear in more experienced runners if, for example, there is a shoe change that causes the footprint to change.
- Prevention : The best way to prevent this injury is to avoid making very long distances without leaving rest. If we start running, alternate running with walking so that the iliotibial band gets accustomed to that rubbing in the area of the knee. And, if we notice that the external zone of the knee hurts to us when finishing a long distance training, we must leave 3-4 days of rest to make sure not to aggravate the illness. A strong musculature of the knee flexor and extensor muscles will also help to stabilize the joint and prevent excessive friction of the iliotibial band.
Pyramidal or pseudocytic syndrome
- Description : pain in the gluteal area caused by the pressure of the pyramidal muscle on the sciatic nerve. When we run, an excess of volume of the pyramidal muscle, shortening or being contracted, can imprison the sciatic nerve, causing pain in the gluteal zone similar to when suffering from sciatica. This pain can radiate to the calf and, when running, is noted when we raise the leg to save an obstacle or climb stairs.
- Prevention : although we are again insisting on not overloading for kilometers so that these injuries do not appear, having a good flexibility and muscular quality in the gluteal area will be fundamental to avoid this type of injuries. Stretching the pyramidal muscle will cause it to exert less pressure on the sciatic nerve. Stretching after running is the ideal time to avoid this type of injury.
- Description : The continuous flexo-extension of the ankle joint when running can irritate the great Achilles tendon, appearing an annoying pain when running and even walking. Being such a large tendon and being in an area away from the heart and having less irrigation, this injury may take longer than other tendinitis to heal.
- Prevention : again, the excess of kilometers or intensity in workouts is to blame for the appearance of tendinitis. Also take into account the type of footwear and the surface where we run, which can cause the tendon to suffer more than normal. Therefore, increasing the training load in a progressive way and alternating the surface where we run is the best way to avoid this injury. If at the end of some training or the next day we notice pain in the area, it is best to stop running for some time until there is no pain and then return very slowly.
- Description : The repeated impacts of the race cause, little by little, bone microroturas, especially in the bones of the foot (metatarsos). When there are many of these microroturas, a complete bone fracture can be reached by stress. It is a slow and progressive process that, sometimes, the runner does not notice because there is no displacement in the fracture, it only feels a slight pain that is aggravated with the passage of time.
- Prevention : Helps prevent this injury by running on surfaces such as dirt and grass, which are not as hard as asphalt. A shoe with good cushioning will also alleviate the bone microroturas, as well as avoid running many kilometers if we are overweight. In more accustomed runners, the excess of competitions can also lead to stress fractures, since the competition is more demanding and the impact of the strides is more traumatic.
Injury prevention in the corridor
Most runner injuries occur because of poor training planning , overloading muscles and joints by doing many miles or passing through intensity. Having a good professional that adapts to the training will be fundamental.
The technique of race also influences, since it is necessary to take into account that in the running it is repeated thousands of times a gesture, reason why it is necessary to do it well. Here also will help to have a strong musculature, that stabilizes the joints and provides an optimum sport gesture.
We also have to take into account the type of shoe that we use and on which surface we run , since to make many kilometers by hard surface or with little cushioning can take us invoice.
And another way to prevent injuries and I would say the most important is to go frequently to a physiotherapist , to get rid of the areas with more tension, advise us on how to avoid injuries and make a diagnosis of possible problems that we may have run.